The term hammertoes
describes three unique contracture deformities of the toes. The deformities differ by the location of contracture in each joint of the toe
. The three deformities include hammer toe
, claw toe
and mallet toe
. Hammer toes may be flexible or rigid. Hammer toes are most common on the lesser toes (2-5) and may affect one or more toes simultaneously. Hallux malleus is the term used to described a hammer toe
of the great toe
. Hallux malleus is often found as an isolated foot problem. Hammer toes are found equally in men and women. The onset of hammer toes is between the ages of 30 and 80 years of age.
Most hammertoes are caused by wearing ill-fitting, tight or high-heeled shoes over a long period of time. Shoes that don?t fit well can crowd the toes, putting pressure on the middle toes and causing them to curl
downward. Other causes include genes. Some people are born with hammertoe, bunions. These knobby bumps sometimes develop at the side of the big toe
. This can make the big toe
bend toward the other toes. The big toe
can then overlap and crowd the smaller toes. Arthritis in a toe
joint can lead to hammertoe.
A hammertoe causes you discomfort when you walk. It can also cause you pain when trying to stretch or move the affected toe
or those around it. Hammertoe symptoms may be mild or severe. Mild Symptoms, a toe
that is bent downward, corns or calluses. Severe Symptoms, difficulty walking, the inability to flex
your foot or wiggle
your toes, claw-like toes. See your doctor or podiatrist right away if you develop any of these symptoms.
Hammer toes may be easily detected through observation. The malformation of the person's toes begin as mild distortions, yet may worsen over time - especially if the factors causing the hammer toes are not eased or removed. If the condition is paid attention to early enough, the person's toes may not be permanently damaged and may be treated without having to receive surgical intervention. If the person's toes remain untreated for too long, however the muscles within the toes might stiffen even more and will require invasive procedures to correct the deformity.
Non Surgical Treatment
Conservative treatment is limited to accommodation, not correction, of the deformity, though some patients find the relief they can get from these options to be more than enough to put off or even avoid surgery. These include better Footwear. Shoe gear with a wider toe
box and higher volume causes less friction to the toes. Toe
Braces and Strapping. Some toe
braces and strapping techniques take some pressure off the toes during gait. Custom molded orthotics can redistribute the forces through the tendons that control the toe
, lessening the pain and extent of the deformity.The calluses on the toe
and the ball of the foot can be shaved occasionally to reduce some pain and pressure, although they will return due to the constant deformity.
In some cases, usually when the hammertoe has become more rigid and painful, or when an open sore has developed, surgery is needed. Often patients with hammertoe have bunions or other foot deformities corrected at the same time. In selecting the procedure or combination of procedures for your particular case, the foot and ankle surgeon will take into consideration the extent of your deformity, the number of toes involved, your age, your activity level, and other factors. The length hammertoe
of the recovery period will vary, depending on the procedure or procedures performed.